I need 4 single quantitative original studies on safety helmet use in school-age population. I need the purpose, sample, design/level of evidence, finding and limitation. with a PICOT question
P: Population/patient – age, gender, ethnicity, individuals with a certain disorder I: Intervention/indicator (Variable of Interest) – exposure to a disease, risk behavior, prognostic factor C: Comparison/control – could be a placebo or “business as usual” as in no disease, absence of risk factor, Prognostic factor B O: Outcome – risk of disease, accuracy of a diagnosis, rate of occurrence of adverse outcome T: Time – the time it takes for the intervention to achieve an outcome or how long participants are observe
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Bicycle Helmet Subsidies in a Defined Population. Academic Journal By: Thompson, Robert S.; Thompson, Diane C.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Salazar, Angela A.. Pediatrics , May93, Vol. 91 Issue 5, p902, 6p
The Population for this study included a cohort consisting of children who were aged between the ages of 5-9 years old, and the population sample consisted of a hypothetical framework wherein 100,000 of these children would theoretically be followed to assess the impact that subsidizing helmets for this cohort had on helmet use. The Intervention for this study was predicated upon providing bicycle helmet subsidies to ensure parents had a more cost-effective option for obtaining helmets for their children. The subsidies consisting of three different amounts consisting of discounts that ranged from $5-15, and the researchers Compared whether these subsidies resulted in parents obtaining helmets for their children as a result of these subsidies. The Comparison also entailed the assessment of different levels of helmet use to deduce whether those who used helmets less frequently experienced higher incidences of head injuries. The Outcomes for this study were measured using an analysis of whether the subsidies resulted in less head injuries emanating from a lack of helmet use, and whether these discounts resulted in more parents buying helmets for their children to use. The time that the hypothetical outcomes would be measured entailed a five year time period wherein 5-9 year old children were followed to deduce the effectiveness of providing bicycle-helmet subsidies to increase helmet-use among this cohort.
The purpose of this research study was to determine whether providing bicycle-helmet subsidies for children aged 5-9 would increase helmet-use and reduce catastrophic head injuries within this cohort. The sample size was a hypothetical cohort consisting of 100,000 children aged 5-9 years old and an emergency department surveillance that consisting of a sample population for researchers to access patients with head injuries that consisted of 29,533. The design was based upon an empiric approach wherein data that was collected by researchers regarding incidences of bicycle injuries in children aged …
The single original studies are examined. The design/level of evidence for finding the limitations are determined.