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Laboratory Report writing tutorial

by | May 22

Practicals are designed to understand thephysico-chemical processes involved infood processing2Practicals on pear canning, potato blanching and freezing, apple dehydration,and onion pickles.Effect of blanching – softening of texture, deactivation of enzymes, and loss ofwater soluble components.Effect of pH and acidity on microorganism survival and thermal processingEffect of freezing – structural effects of freezing on textureEffect of heat – Maillard browning reactions between proteins and sugars.Effect of drying on microbiological stability of foodEffect of chemicals (ascorbic, citric and SO2) to prevent browning reactions.Methods for monitoring food qualityMeasurements to assess the quality of food and impact of foodprocessing conditions: Rapid methods: pH, Brix, water activity. Enzyme activity: peroxidase test Reducing sugars: Fehlings test Titratable acidity Texture analyser: hardness or softness Colour meter: determine extent of browning (Enzymicor Maillard)3Sensory analysis of foods4 Sensory assessment of appearance, texture, flavour Relate sensory observations with objective measurements Brix – sweetness pH – acidity Texture analyser – firmness Colour meter – colour of food, extent of browning reactionsMass Balance Mass balance refers to the material balance of the process. Includes the weights of raw materials, waste off cuts,intermediate products and end products. This weight data is used to calculate the Yield of the product,and the Losses from the process. This data should be collated and presented in clear format.Don’t copy directly from the practical notes..Systematically record experimentaldata and maintain records.6 Hardbound, pages dated, Note experimental details/ variables Record all results in detailInterpret Scientific Data, Integrate Theoretical Knowledge &Discuss Findings in a Scientific Report Review relevant literature – theoretical background to theobjectives of the experiment. Use this to provide depth toyour interpretation of the experiments Interpret your results in context of published literature,demonstrating your understanding of the experimentPreparation for report writingLearning guideObtain background literature for your practical.References listed in practical notes are the minimumrequirements, additional texts can be obtained fromthe library.Obtain your practical results as recorded in yournotebook during class, including shared results forsensory evaluation of the product.Style guide for report writingThe learning guide states the requirements for this report; including sections on: Introduction Method Results Discussion Conclusions References Appendix If you have never written a scientific report, you can take some inspirationfrom the following style guide. http://services.unimelb.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/489106/Scientific_Research_Reports_Update_051112.pdfPresentation of results Create well formatted comprehensively labelled tables and figures thatdisplay your results in an accessible form for the reader. Don’t clutter withcalculations and raw data (e.g. tare weights, etc.). The reported results should comprise the calculated result but not thecalculation.. Eg. Mean sensory rating, Titratable acidity, or Yield %. Plan which results that should be grouped together in a table, which shouldbe in separate tables.. Use logic to decide. Plan how best collate and arrangethe results so they clearly show the experimental findings in an efficientuncluttered table or graph. The recorded results in the practical notes (comprising raw data andcalculations) should be placed into the Appendix to show the basis of yourresults.SI /Metric Units and abbreviations –scientific report writingUse the SI symbols for the units: Use the symbol oC for degrees Celsius, ensure it is preceded by a space whenone expresses the value of temperatures, eg 25 oC The symbol % should be used, not the name “percent”, and leave a spacebetween the symbol % and numeral. The word “to” be used to indicate a range of values for a quantity instead ofa range dash ( – ) http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/checklist.htmlSensory Rating scales*Used in FS2*Used in FS1Line rating scalesRating scales are used to describe the intensity of sensory attributes of a sample.Panellist’s can mark their rating anywhere along the line to represent their assessment15cm line rating scale0 cm = no detectable amount of the attribute15 cm = a very large amount of the attributeUse a ruler to measure the rating (cm) based on location of rating on the scale.Calculate the average rating for multiple panelists.Extremely ExtremelySoft FirmReporting sensory results –example13Sensory parameterControlMilk powderTestWhey powderColour intensity 2.5 3.5Texture – chewy 10 7.2Texture – sandiness 0.9 2.4Sweetness 4.7 5.3Table 1. Sensory Analysis of Ice Cream made with milk powder comparedto whey powder, assessed using 15cm line rating scale (Average of 10Tasters)Discussion of results Use the Marking criteria to guide the topics that should be covered in thediscussion. Link your sensory results, and objective (physical and chemical) results, withthe variables tested in the experiment. Explain your observations, using suggested literature readings to provide ascientific explanation for the findings of the experiments.Submission of reportUpload to the TURNITIN portal in vUWS, include the entire report,references and appendix.Assessment Item 2 – Laboratory ReportDue 27 April 2020 by MidnightThe report will be marked in TURNITIN, if sections are missing theycannot be marked.The body of your report needs to be relatively clear of matchedtext, i.e. Introduction, Method, Results and Discussion will beconsidered for matched text.Appendix includes material direct from the practical notes, it willboost the matched text score; but don’t worry about the matchedtext in the Appendix.
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