What are the three interconnected phases of healthpolicymaking? How do they affect each other?
What are the major activities in the formulation, implementation, and evaluation/modification stages?
How does economicsapply to health care policy?
Interesting questions! Let’s take a closer look.
1. What are the three interconnected phases of health policy making? How do they affect each other? What are the major activities in the formulation, implementation, and evaluation/modification stages?
There are actually four phases/stages of health policy making:
(1) The entry of policy inputs (e.g., also referred to the agenda setting stage): policy institutions and individuals are exposed to stimulus from individual groups and institutions that make up society (e.g., demands of health policies or opposition to present policy; supports for previous policy making e.g., including reelection to public office or reappointment to administrative or judicial office; resources for additional policy making e.g. such as tax revenues; and costs incurred form previous policy making e.g. budgetary debts of loss of political support as a result of previous political decisions). As a result of the inputs, the agenda for the next policy making process takes shape (Rabin, 2003).
Once the agendas are set in this phase, it leads to the next phase, policy formulation.
(2) Policy Formulation: Once health policy agendas are set, policy makers work through existing institutions to enact preferred policies responses. In democracies, such as the United States or the UK, this usually involves the executive, legislative, judicial, regulatory and private sector. In United State to prevent hasty or dictatorship policy decisions, they designate policy institutions e.g., separation of policy making powers between governmental offices, the further division of policy making powers between national and state governments, and the potential review of the executive and legislative policy making by the judicial branch. Because of the divided power, U.S. policymaking is often characterized as incremental, with prevailing policymaking consisting of only modest and gradual adjustments of existing policies. One important feature of the U.S. policy making is the involvement of, and at times, the control by the private sector organizations. In the United States, slightly over half of the health care spending comes from the private sector. Subsequently, the private sector organizations have a significant input into all health making. For example, in some areas such …
This solution discusses the three interconnected phases of health policy making and how they affect each other. It also discusses the major activities in the formulation, implementation, and evaluation/modification stages and how economics applies to health care policy.