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draw a picture of each of the compounds using a single line for a single-covalent bond. If it is contains a polar covalent bond, then indicate the location of the d+ and d- . If it is a non-polar bond, then leave out these partial charges.

by | May 23

NSCI172 Assignment: Bonding
Name ______________________________________
Complete the three activities by typing in your answer below each question, save the file as YourLastName_Bond, and upload to the dropbox. You also may handwrite and take photos of each page and upload all 7 pages to the dropbox as a pdf file using AdobeScan phone app or OneDrive phone app.
Activity 1 – A compound by any other name…
 
Objective: Based on the elements present in a chemical formula, classify the compound as ionic or covalent (covalent molecules are also referred to as molecular compounds).
 
Getting Started:
Review the definitions for an element and a compound based on the Model.
 
The Model:
Fe is the elemental form of iron.
C is the elemental form of carbon.
Cl2 is the elemental form of chlorine.
FeCl3 is a compound formed from the elements iron and chlorine.
 
Reviewing the Model

What does the subscript 2 indicate in Cl2?

 
 

What is implied when there is no subscript?

 
 
 

Classify C, Fe and Cl as metals or nonmetals.

 

Element
Metal or Non-metal

C
 

Fe
 

Cl
 

 
Exploring the Model

Based on the Model, evaluate the statement, “The formulas for elements never contain a subscript.” Is this statement true? Why or why not?

 
 
 
 

From the examples and the Model provided, would you expect the P4 to represent a compound or an element? Explain your answer.

Exercising Your Knowledge

Classify each formula below as an element or a compound:

 

Co _______________________
S8 _______________________
CuOH _______________________
Br2 _______________________
Hg_______________________
Na3N _______________________
BaCl2_______________________
Ne _______________________

 
Summarizing Your Thoughts

What clues are given in chemical formulas that allow you to differentiate between an element and a compound?

 
 
 
 
 
 
Activity 2 – Types of compounds…
 
Getting Started:
There are two major classes of compounds typically encountered as part of an introductory course: ionic compounds and covalent compounds. The concepts describing how these compounds are held together can be developed as you progress through your studies. However, before you get to those concepts you must be able to quickly classify a compound into one class or the other. In other words, your ability to classify compounds will guide how you will think about bigger ideas.
 
The Model:
Table 1 – Compounds that are considered…

Ionic
Covalent

Fe2O3
CCl4

Na2O
OF2

ZnCl2
NO2

CuI
CO

 
Reviewing the Model

The compound ZnCl2 is considered to be a (an) ______________________________ compound.

 

The compound that contains nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) is a (an) _______________ compound

 
Exploring the Model

Does the classification seem to be based on how many atoms of each element are represented in the formula?

Using your mouse, place the boxes of the symbols for the elements presented by the Model (in Table 1 above) near their correct location on the outline of the periodic table. You don’t need to fill in the other empty boxes nor the entire Periodic Table. You may use your textbook.

C

I

Cu

N

O

Na

Cl

Zn

Fe

P

 

Where are the metals located in the Periodic Table? How about the non-metals? Which type of compound (ionic or covalent) contains both metals and non-metal elements?

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Exercising Your Knowledge

Classify each of the following as either ionic or covalent compounds.

 
 

SiH4____________________
KI ____________________
PH3____________________
CrCl3 ____________________
SO2 ____________________
CaS ____________________
CO2____________________
AlCl3 ____________________
CoBr2 ____________________
CsF2 ____________________

 
Summarizing Your Thoughts

Write a simple rule that will allow you to classify compounds as ionic or covalent on the basis of what you have learned from the Model.

 
 
Activity 3 – Types of covalent bonds…
Getting Started:
For molecular or covalently bonded compounds, there are two types of covalent bonds: polar covalent and non-polar covalent. The difference in electronegativities of the atoms involved in the bond dictates the type.  We will focus on diatomic molecules.  Note: a table of electronegativies is on the next page.
 
The Model:
Table 2

Compound or Element*
Elements to be Compared
Difference in Electronegativities

*Note that H2 is an element, but the other 3 in the table are compounds.

Type of Covalent Bond

HCl
H and Cl
3-2.1 = 0.9
Polar

ICl
I and Cl
3-2.5 = 0.5
Polar

HI
H and I
2.5 – 2.1 = 0.4
Non-Polar

H2
H and H
2.1-2.1 = 0
Non-Polar

Source of pictures: http://125.167.178.172/sandichem.net/chemistry/4.bp.blogspot.com/_V_sWTQG6rgE/Sq3FVdin0oI/AAAAAAAAAXE/DbvNDt-8OLU/s320/150HCL.png
Reviewing the Model.  Use the information in Table 2 and the pictures above.

Which of the 4 compounds or elements in Table 2 have polar covalent bonds? ______________________________________________________________
These have differences in electronegativies greater than a value of ___________.
Which of the 4 compounds or elements in Table 2 have non-polar covalent bonds? ______________________________________________________________
These have differences in electronegatives less than a value of _______________.
Which type of covalent bond has unequal sharing of electrons a large percentage of the time? polar covalent non-polar covalent
Which type of covalent bond has equal sharing of electrons all the time?

polar covalent                  non-polar covalent
Electronegativity Trends in the Periodic Table
 
Source: www.mrteverett.com/Chemistry/pdictable/electronegativity%20table.jpg
 

Fill in the blanks based on the Periodic Trend with “increases” or “decreases”:

Electronegativity _____________________________________ from left to right, and ______________________________________ from top to bottom.
 
Exploring the Model and Exercising your Knowledge

Fill in the table. The first one has been done for you.

Compound
Elements to be Compared
Difference in Electronegativities
Type of Covalent Bond

HF
H and F
4-2.1 = 1.9
Polar

HBr
 
 
 

Br2
 
 
 

 
 
 

Directions: HF is done for you so follow this example. Draw pictures for HBr and Br2.  You may want to review the pictures on page. 4.  You don’t have to include the lone pair electrons.
First draw a picture of each of the compounds using a single line for a single-covalent bond. If it is contains a polar covalent bond, then indicate the location of the d+ and d- . If it is a non-polar bond, then leave out these partial charges.
Next draw a picture of the compound using 2 dots to represent the 2 shared electrons in the bond. If it contains a polar covalent bond, the electrons should be closest to the more electronegative atom in the bond, and you also should draw a dipole symbol.  Note: the cross in the dipole symbol is under the less electronegative atom and the point is under the more electronegative atom. If it is non-polar, then only draw the dots representing the electrons and don’t draw the dipole symbol.

Example:        a) H – F                       b) H    :F   (note that the electrons are much closer to F)
d+    d-                                          (Dipole symbol is the arrow below)
 
Now, do the same for HBr and Br2 below.  You should have 4 drawings total.
 
 
 
 
Activity 4 – Review…
 
Directions: Below the table, there are 5 sets of 3 facts where each of the facts corresponds to one of the types of bonds.  Fill in the table using the given facts. The first set has been done for you, so you need to add the other 4 sets of facts in the remaining empty blocks in the table.
 

Ionic Bond
Covalent Bond

Ions
Polar
Non-Polar

Complete transfer of electron
Unequal sharing of electrons
Equal sharing of electrons

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

Complete transfer of electron
Equal sharing of electrons
Unequal sharing of electrons

 

Two different nonmetals
Two identical nonmetals
Metal and nonmetal

 

No charges
Partial ionic charges
Full ionic charges

 

Electronegativity difference <0.5
Electronegativity difference 0.5–1.7
Electronegativity difference ˃1.7

 

Na+Cl–
H–H

·         H–F

 

Sources:
Activities 1 and 2 are based on Bonding_POGIL_2011 by Clutz.
Activity 3 is based on http://www.pdesas.org/module/content/resources/18006/view.ashx
Activity 4 is based on: http://www.pdesas.org/module/content/resources/18005/view.ashx and http://www.pdesas.org/module/content/resources/18006/view.ashx
Modified by Sharon Fredericks 5/22/2020.

The post draw a picture of each of the compounds using a single line for a single-covalent bond. If it is contains a polar covalent bond, then indicate the location of the d+ and d- . If it is a non-polar bond, then leave out these partial charges. appeared first on Best Custom Essay Writing Services | Essaysmiths.com.

  

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